Self-testing: an effective means of increasing HIV-testing and status awareness
Moore et al.
Type of approach
Type of assistance
General population: Patients who refused HIV testing services
UNAIDS HIV prevalence (2017)
19.2 [18.4 - 20.0]
HIV testing was offered at 2 clinics; those who refused HIV testing were offered HIV self-testing. Participants were given pictorial instructions in addition to a test kit and asked to report their results by texting their test result to a toll-free number and to return to clinic for confirmatory testing at the clinic. Reminder texts were then sent daily for 7 days, then weekly x 3. Clients not responding were called every week for 3 weeks.
Summary of findings
88% (655/744) of individuals who refused HIV testing and were offered HIVST accepted. 95% of those taking up HIVST were women, median age 28 years, age 18-65 tested. 73% (467/655) documented a result and 83% (382/467) reported via SMS. 7% (34/382) had a positive result and 41% (14/34) of positives returned within 2 months. The individuals who did not accept HIVST refused because: 40% said they were scared/not ready, 21% reported no reason, and 20% would rather have traditional testing. 50% (17/34) of those with a positive self-test were newly diagnosed. 71% (12/17) were confirmed and 4/12 (33%) started ART. No identified risk of social harm or adverse events were reported. There was no use of the study phone number for queries or assistance.
88% (655/744) of individuals who refused HIV testing and were offered HIVST accepted.
Willingness to pay
Willingness to pay details
No identified risk of social harm or adverse events were reported.
Linkage to prevention, care and treatment
71% (12/17) were confirmed HIV-positive and 4/12 (33%) started ART.