How should HIV self-test kits be packaged in Kenya?
Stankard et al.
Type of approach
Type of assistance
Mixed: General population, sex workers and men who have sex with men and healthcare workers
Values and preferences
UNAIDS HIV prevalence (2017)
5.9 [4.9 - 7.0]
During the first phase, potential test-kit users were asked to react to the concept of HIVST and to provide feedback on an existing HIV oral self-test kit called AWARE. AWARE is not currently on the market but has been tested with community health workers in Kenya. Results from the feedback were used to develop two new packaging mock-ups, which were then tested again with potential test-kit users during the second phase of the study. Interviews were conducted with 26 potential end users in Phase I and 20 potential users in Phase II. Additional key informant interviews were conducted with other experts.
Summary of findings
Potential users were enthusiastic about the possibility of HIV self-testing but most professionals expressed reservations because of concerns about counseling and support. Some users suggested HIVST could provide a boost of confidence to overcome nervousness of first-time testing. Other benefits included additional privacy, convenience, ease of use, and the empowering effect of HIVST as a way to take control of HIV testing. Potential users mostly identified pharmacies as a way that HIVST would be available for purchase or free of charge. However influencers and stakeholders primarily identified health centers or facilities (often due to concerns about the need for counseling). Some potential users did report concerns about lack of quality-assured or 'counterfeit' products for HIVST and how they would respond to a positive self-test result. A number of concerns about about packaging were raised and instructions were identified as needing to be revised.
Willingness to pay
Willingness to pay details
Linkage to prevention, care and treatment