HIV prevalence, risky behaviors, and discrimination experiences among transgender women in Cambodia: descriptive findings from a national integrated biological and behavioral survey
Yi et al.
Type of approach
Type of assistance
UNAIDS HIV prevalence (2017)
0.6 [0.6 - 0.7]
From Dec 2015 to Feb 2016 a cross-sectional study was conducted at 20 sites in the capital city and 12 provinces of Cambodia using the Respondent Driven Sampling method. Behavioral data were collected through structured questionnaire interviews, and rapid finger-prick HIV testing was performed. Descriptive data analyses were conducted using STATA.
Summary of findings
Participants had a mean age of 25.9 years (SD=7.1) and the overall HIV prevalence was 5.9%. The prevalence of HIV was significantly higher among urban participants compared to their rural counterparts (6.5 vs. 2.6%, p=0.02). Almost one in five (19.6%) had never been tested for HIV prior to the study. 45% reported ever using gender-affirming hormones. More than one-third (39.1%) reported not using condoms in their last sex, 29.8% had engaged in sex in exchange for money/gifts, and 14.0% reported that they had experienced at least one symptom of sexually transmitted infections in the past year. About one in ten (10.1%) reported having used some form of amphetamine-type stimulant drugs, while 6.5% reported having sex during or after using illicit drugs. A significant number of participants experienced sexual abuse (39.2%), losing a job (24.3%), or physical abuse (23.6%) because of their transgender identity. In addition, 82.9% and 88.9% would be willing to use HIVST and pre-exposure prophylaxis, respectively, if available.
82.9% willing to use the HIV self-test.
Willingness to pay
Willingness to pay details
Linkage to prevention, care and treatment