Clinical and community views of the instant result HIV self-testing: barriers and facilitators for effective implementation among men who have sex with men
Type of approach
Type of assistance
Key population: Men who have sex with men
Values and preferences
UNAIDS HIV prevalence (2017)
Twelve focus group discussions were conducted with 55 men who have sex with men from both urban and rural settings, entrepreneurs (gay shop owners, sex-sauna staff), gay activists, National Health Services staff in urban and rural practices and community organisations.
Summary of findings
Key facilitators enabling the effective implementation of self-testing were convenience, speed of testing and receiving results, high levels of discretion and privacy, avoiding the perceived stigma of using genitourinary medicine clinics, the potential of the test to reach new populations and to rationalise clinical time and resources. Key barriers were perceptions of the high levels of health literacy, skills and competencies required to use the test properly, challenges of packaging and branding, perceptions of poor trust and low perceived accuracy, lost opportunities for engagement with additional services and professional staff, a sense of separating HIV from wider holistic health, and concerns regarding the perceived negative consequences of receiving positive results outside a care setting.
Willingness to pay
Willingness to pay details
Linkage to prevention, care and treatment